The Non-cognitive skills are understood as the knowledge or understanding, attitudes, and abilities required to handle and contribute to the different areas of an individual's life: personal, social, and work. In this regard, the non-cognitive skills in the framework of the Five – Factor Model (FF) are: agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion and openness to experience (Borghans et al, 2008; Muller and Plug, 2006; Nyus and Pons, 2005).


  • Agreeableness is the willingness to help other people, act in accordance with other people interests and the degree to which an individual is co-operative and empathic.

  • Conscientiousness is the preference for keeping engagements and the attitude of being hardworking, organised and trustworthy.

  • Emotional stability encompasses dimensions such as relaxed, independent, calm and self-confident.

  • Extraversion is the preference for human contacts, empathy, gregariousness, assertiveness and the wish to inspire people.

  • Openness to experience indicates the individual propensity to decide and the degree of initiative and control.